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    首頁»Java WEB»史上最全最強SpringMVC詳細示例實戰教程

    史上最全最強SpringMVC詳細示例實戰教程

    來源:Sunnier 發布時間:2015-06-22 閱讀次數:

     一、SpringMVC基礎入門,創建一個HelloWorld程序

      1.首先,導入SpringMVC需要的jar包。

      2.添加Web.xml配置文件中關于SpringMVC的配置

      <!--configure the setting of springmvcDispatcherServlet and configure the mapping-->
      <servlet>
          <servlet-name>springmvc</servlet-name>
          <servlet-class>org.springframework.web.servlet.DispatcherServlet</servlet-class>
          <init-param>
                <param-name>contextConfigLocation</param-name>
                <param-value>classpath:springmvc-servlet.xml</param-value>
            </init-param>
            <!-- <load-on-startup>1</load-on-startup> -->
      </servlet>
    
      <servlet-mapping>
          <servlet-name>springmvc</servlet-name>
          <url-pattern>/</url-pattern>
      </servlet-mapping>

      3.在src下添加springmvc-servlet.xml配置文件

    <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
    <beans xmlns="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"
        xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
        xmlns:context="http://www.springframework.org/schema/context"
        xmlns:mvc="http://www.springframework.org/schema/mvc"
        xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans.xsd
            http://www.springframework.org/schema/context http://www.springframework.org/schema/context/spring-context-4.1.xsd
            http://www.springframework.org/schema/mvc http://www.springframework.org/schema/mvc/spring-mvc-4.1.xsd">                    
    
        <!-- scan the package and the sub package -->
        <context:component-scan base-package="test.SpringMVC"/>
    
        <!-- don't handle the static resource -->
        <mvc:default-servlet-handler />
    
        <!-- if you use annotation you must configure following setting -->
        <mvc:annotation-driven />
        
        <!-- configure the InternalResourceViewResolver -->
        <bean class="org.springframework.web.servlet.view.InternalResourceViewResolver" 
                id="internalResourceViewResolver">
            <!-- 前綴 -->
            <property name="prefix" value="/WEB-INF/jsp/" />
            <!-- 后綴 -->
            <property name="suffix" value=".jsp" />
        </bean>
    </beans>

      4.在WEB-INF文件夾下創建名為jsp的文件夾,用來存放jsp視圖。創建一個hello.jsp,在body中添加“Hello World”。

      5.建立包及Controller,如下所示

      6.編寫Controller代碼

    @Controller
    @RequestMapping("/mvc")
    public class mvcController {
    
        @RequestMapping("/hello")
        public String hello(){        
            return "hello";
        }
    }

      7.啟動服務器,鍵入 http://localhost:8080/項目名/mvc/hello

     二、配置解析

      1.Dispatcherservlet

      DispatcherServlet是前置控制器,配置在web.xml文件中的。攔截匹配的請求,Servlet攔截匹配規則要自已定義,把攔截下來的請求,依據相應的規則分發到目標Controller來處理,是配置spring MVC的第一步。

      2.InternalResourceViewResolver

      視圖名稱解析器

      3.以上出現的注解

      @Controller 負責注冊一個bean 到spring 上下文中

      @RequestMapping 注解為控制器指定可以處理哪些 URL 請求

     三、SpringMVC常用注解

      @Controller

      負責注冊一個bean 到spring 上下文中

      @RequestMapping

      注解為控制器指定可以處理哪些 URL 請求

      @RequestBody

      該注解用于讀取Request請求的body部分數據,使用系統默認配置的HttpMessageConverter進行解析,然后把相應的數據綁定到要返回的對象上 ,再把HttpMessageConverter返回的對象數據綁定到 controller中方法的參數上

      @ResponseBody

      該注解用于將Controller的方法返回的對象,通過適當的HttpMessageConverter轉換為指定格式后,寫入到Response對象的body數據區

      @ModelAttribute    

      在方法定義上使用 @ModelAttribute 注解:Spring MVC 在調用目標處理方法前,會先逐個調用在方法級上標注了@ModelAttribute 的方法

      在方法的入參前使用 @ModelAttribute 注解:可以從隱含對象中獲取隱含的模型數據中獲取對象,再將請求參數 –綁定到對象中,再傳入入參將方法入參對象添加到模型中 

      @RequestParam 

      在處理方法入參處使用 @RequestParam 可以把請求參 數傳遞給請求方法

      @PathVariable

      綁定 URL 占位符到入參

      @ExceptionHandler

      注解到方法上,出現異常時會執行該方法

      @ControllerAdvice

      使一個Contoller成為全局的異常處理類,類中用@ExceptionHandler方法注解的方法可以處理所有Controller發生的異常

     四、自動匹配參數

      //match automatically
      @RequestMapping("/person")
      public String toPerson(String name,double age){
          System.out.println(name+" "+age);
          return "hello";
      }

     五、自動裝箱

      1.編寫一個Person實體類

    package test.SpringMVC.model;
    
    public class Person {
        public String getName() {
            return name;
        }
        public void setName(String name) {
            this.name = name;
        }
        public int getAge() {
            return age;
        }
        public void setAge(int age) {
            this.age = age;
        }
        private String name;
        private int age;
        
    }

      2.在Controller里編寫方法

      //boxing automatically
      @RequestMapping("/person1")
      public String toPerson(Person p){
          System.out.println(p.getName()+" "+p.getAge());
          return "hello";
      }

     六、使用InitBinder來處理Date類型的參數

     //the parameter was converted in initBinder
     @RequestMapping("/date")
     public String date(Date date){
         System.out.println(date);
         return "hello";
     }
        
     //At the time of initialization,convert the type "String" to type "date"
     @InitBinder
     public void initBinder(ServletRequestDataBinder binder){
         binder.registerCustomEditor(Date.class, new CustomDateEditor(new SimpleDateFormat("yyyy-MM-dd"),
                 true));
     }

     七、向前臺傳遞參數

     //pass the parameters to front-end
     @RequestMapping("/show")
     public String showPerson(Map<String,Object> map){
         Person p =new Person();
         map.put("p", p);
         p.setAge(20);
         p.setName("jayjay");
         return "show";
     }

      前臺可在Request域中取到"p"

     八、使用Ajax調用

     //pass the parameters to front-end using ajax
     @RequestMapping("/getPerson")
     public void getPerson(String name,PrintWriter pw){
         pw.write("hello,"+name);        
     }
     @RequestMapping("/name")
     public String sayHello(){
         return "name";
     }

      前臺用下面的Jquery代碼調用

     $(function(){
         $("#btn").click(function(){
            $.post("mvc/getPerson",{name:$("#name").val()},function(data){
                 alert(data);
             });
         });
     });

     九、在Controller中使用redirect方式處理請求

      //redirect 
      @RequestMapping("/redirect")
      public String redirect(){
          return "redirect:hello";
      }

     十、文件上傳

      1.需要導入兩個jar包

      2.在SpringMVC配置文件中加入

      <!-- upload settings -->
      <bean id="multipartResolver"  class="org.springframework.web.multipart.commons.CommonsMultipartResolver">
          <property name="maxUploadSize" value="102400000"></property>
      </bean>

      3.方法代碼

        @RequestMapping(value="/upload",method=RequestMethod.POST)
        public String upload(HttpServletRequest req) throws Exception{
            MultipartHttpServletRequest mreq = (MultipartHttpServletRequest)req;
            MultipartFile file = mreq.getFile("file");
            String fileName = file.getOriginalFilename();
            SimpleDateFormat sdf = new SimpleDateFormat("yyyyMMddHHmmss");        
            FileOutputStream fos = new FileOutputStream(req.getSession().getServletContext().getRealPath("/")+
                    "upload/"+sdf.format(new Date())+fileName.substring(fileName.lastIndexOf('.')));
            fos.write(file.getBytes());
            fos.flush();
            fos.close();
            
            return "hello";
        }

      4.前臺form表單

       <form action="mvc/upload" method="post" enctype="multipart/form-data">
           <input type="file" name="file"><br>
           <input type="submit" value="submit">
       </form>

     十一、使用@RequestParam注解指定參數的name

    @Controller
    @RequestMapping("/test")
    public class mvcController1 {
        @RequestMapping(value="/param")
        public String testRequestParam(@RequestParam(value="id") Integer id,
                @RequestParam(value="name")String name){
            System.out.println(id+" "+name);
            return "/hello";
        }    
    }

     十二、RESTFul風格的SringMVC

      1.RestController

    @Controller
    @RequestMapping("/rest")
    public class RestController {
        @RequestMapping(value="/user/{id}",method=RequestMethod.GET)
        public String get(@PathVariable("id") Integer id){
            System.out.println("get"+id);
            return "/hello";
        }
        
        @RequestMapping(value="/user/{id}",method=RequestMethod.POST)
        public String post(@PathVariable("id") Integer id){
            System.out.println("post"+id);
            return "/hello";
        }
        
        @RequestMapping(value="/user/{id}",method=RequestMethod.PUT)
        public String put(@PathVariable("id") Integer id){
            System.out.println("put"+id);
            return "/hello";
        }
        
        @RequestMapping(value="/user/{id}",method=RequestMethod.DELETE)
        public String delete(@PathVariable("id") Integer id){
            System.out.println("delete"+id);
            return "/hello";
        }
        
    }

      2.form表單發送put和delete請求

      在web.xml中配置

      <!-- configure the HiddenHttpMethodFilter,convert the post method to put or delete -->
      <filter>
          <filter-name>HiddenHttpMethodFilter</filter-name>
          <filter-class>org.springframework.web.filter.HiddenHttpMethodFilter</filter-class>
      </filter>
      <filter-mapping>
          <filter-name>HiddenHttpMethodFilter</filter-name>
          <url-pattern>/*</url-pattern>
      </filter-mapping>

      在前臺可以用以下代碼產生請求

        <form action="rest/user/1" method="post">
            <input type="hidden" name="_method" value="PUT">
            <input type="submit" value="put">
        </form>
        
        <form action="rest/user/1" method="post">
            <input type="submit" value="post">
        </form>
        
        <form action="rest/user/1" method="get">
            <input type="submit" value="get">
        </form>
        
        <form action="rest/user/1" method="post">
            <input type="hidden" name="_method" value="DELETE">
            <input type="submit" value="delete">
        </form>

     十三、返回json格式的字符串

      1.導入以下jar包

      2.方法代碼

    @Controller
    @RequestMapping("/json")
    public class jsonController {
        
        @ResponseBody
        @RequestMapping("/user")
        public  User get(){
            User u = new User();
            u.setId(1);
            u.setName("jayjay");
            u.setBirth(new Date());
            return u;
        }
    }

     十四、異常的處理

      1.處理局部異常(Controller內)

     @ExceptionHandler
     public ModelAndView exceptionHandler(Exception ex){
         ModelAndView mv = new ModelAndView("error");
         mv.addObject("exception", ex);
         System.out.println("in testExceptionHandler");
         return mv;
     }
        
     @RequestMapping("/error")
     public String error(){
         int i = 5/0;
         return "hello";
     }

      2.處理全局異常(所有Controller)

    @ControllerAdvice
    public class testControllerAdvice {
        @ExceptionHandler
        public ModelAndView exceptionHandler(Exception ex){
            ModelAndView mv = new ModelAndView("error");
            mv.addObject("exception", ex);
            System.out.println("in testControllerAdvice");
            return mv;
        }
    }

      3.另一種處理全局異常的方法

      在SpringMVC配置文件中配置

      <!-- configure SimpleMappingExceptionResolver -->
      <bean class="org.springframework.web.servlet.handler.SimpleMappingExceptionResolver">
          <property name="exceptionMappings">
              <props>
                  <prop key="java.lang.ArithmeticException">error</prop>
              </props>
          </property>
      </bean>

      error是出錯頁面

     十五、設置一個自定義攔截器

      1.創建一個MyInterceptor類,并實現HandlerInterceptor接口

    public class MyInterceptor implements HandlerInterceptor {
    
        @Override
        public void afterCompletion(HttpServletRequest arg0,
                HttpServletResponse arg1, Object arg2, Exception arg3)
                throws Exception {
            System.out.println("afterCompletion");
        }
    
        @Override
        public void postHandle(HttpServletRequest arg0, HttpServletResponse arg1,
                Object arg2, ModelAndView arg3) throws Exception {
            System.out.println("postHandle");
        }
    
        @Override
        public boolean preHandle(HttpServletRequest arg0, HttpServletResponse arg1,
                Object arg2) throws Exception {
            System.out.println("preHandle");
            return true;
        }
    
    }

      2.在SpringMVC的配置文件中配置

        <!-- interceptor setting -->
        <mvc:interceptors>
            <mvc:interceptor>
                <mvc:mapping path="/mvc/**"/>
                <bean class="test.SpringMVC.Interceptor.MyInterceptor"></bean>
            </mvc:interceptor>        
        </mvc:interceptors>

      3.攔截器執行順序

     十六、表單的驗證(使用Hibernate-validate)及國際化

      1.導入Hibernate-validate需要的jar包

    (未選中不用導入)

      2.編寫實體類User并加上驗證注解

    public class User {
        public int getId() {
            return id;
        }
        public void setId(int id) {
            this.id = id;
        }
        public String getName() {
            return name;
        }
        public void setName(String name) {
            this.name = name;
        }
        public Date getBirth() {
            return birth;
        }
        public void setBirth(Date birth) {
            this.birth = birth;
        }
        @Override
        public String toString() {
            return "User [id=" + id + ", name=" + name + ", birth=" + birth + "]";
        }    
        private int id;
        @NotEmpty
        private String name;
    
        @Past
        @DateTimeFormat(pattern="yyyy-MM-dd")
        private Date birth;
    }

      ps:@Past表示時間必須是一個過去值

      3.在jsp中使用SpringMVC的form表單

        <form:form action="form/add" method="post" modelAttribute="user">
            id:<form:input path="id"/><form:errors path="id"/><br>
            name:<form:input path="name"/><form:errors path="name"/><br>
            birth:<form:input path="birth"/><form:errors path="birth"/>
            <input type="submit" value="submit">
        </form:form> 

      ps:path對應name

      4.Controller中代碼

    @Controller
    @RequestMapping("/form")
    public class formController {
        @RequestMapping(value="/add",method=RequestMethod.POST)    
        public String add(@Valid User u,BindingResult br){
            if(br.getErrorCount()>0){            
                return "addUser";
            }
            return "showUser";
        }
        
        @RequestMapping(value="/add",method=RequestMethod.GET)
        public String add(Map<String,Object> map){
            map.put("user",new User());
            return "addUser";
        }
    }

      ps:

      1.因為jsp中使用了modelAttribute屬性,所以必須在request域中有一個"user".

      [email protected] 表示按照在實體上標記的注解驗證參數

      3.返回到原頁面錯誤信息回回顯,表單也會回顯

      5.錯誤信息自定義

      在src目錄下添加locale.properties

    NotEmpty.user.name=name can't not be empty
    Past.user.birth=birth should be a past value
    DateTimeFormat.user.birth=the format of input is wrong
    typeMismatch.user.birth=the format of input is wrong
    typeMismatch.user.id=the format of input is wrong

      在SpringMVC配置文件中配置

        <!-- configure the locale resource -->
        <bean id="messageSource" class="org.springframework.context.support.ResourceBundleMessageSource">
            <property name="basename" value="locale"></property>
        </bean>

      6.國際化顯示

      在src下添加locale_zh_CN.properties

    username=賬號
    password=密碼

      locale.properties中添加

    username=user name
    password=password

      創建一個locale.jsp

      <body>
        <fmt:message key="username"></fmt:message>
        <fmt:message key="password"></fmt:message>
      </body>

      在SpringMVC中配置

        <!-- make the jsp page can be visited -->
        <mvc:view-controller path="/locale" view-name="locale"/>

      讓locale.jsp在WEB-INF下也能直接訪問

      最后,訪問locale.jsp,切換瀏覽器語言,能看到賬號和密碼的語言也切換了

     十七、壓軸大戲--整合SpringIOC和SpringMVC

      1.創建一個test.SpringMVC.integrate的包用來演示整合,并創建各類

      2.User實體類

    public class User {
        public int getId() {
            return id;
        }
        public void setId(int id) {
            this.id = id;
        }
        public String getName() {
            return name;
        }
        public void setName(String name) {
            this.name = name;
        }
        public Date getBirth() {
            return birth;
        }
        public void setBirth(Date birth) {
            this.birth = birth;
        }
        @Override
        public String toString() {
            return "User [id=" + id + ", name=" + name + ", birth=" + birth + "]";
        }    
        private int id;
        @NotEmpty
        private String name;
    
        @Past
        @DateTimeFormat(pattern="yyyy-MM-dd")
        private Date birth;
    }

      3.UserService類

    @Component
    public class UserService {
        public UserService(){
            System.out.println("UserService Constructor...\n\n\n\n\n\n");
        }
        
        public void save(){
            System.out.println("save");
        }
    }

      4.UserController

    @Controller
    @RequestMapping("/integrate")
    public class UserController {
        @Autowired
        private UserService userService;
        
        @RequestMapping("/user")
        public String saveUser(@RequestBody @ModelAttribute User u){
            System.out.println(u);
            userService.save();
            return "hello";
        }
    }

      5.Spring配置文件

      在src目錄下創建SpringIOC的配置文件applicationContext.xml

    <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
    <beans xmlns="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"
        xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
        xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans  
            http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans.xsd 
            http://www.springframework.org/schema/util 
            http://www.springframework.org/schema/util/spring-util-4.0.xsd
            http://www.springframework.org/schema/context
            http://www.springframework.org/schema/context/spring-context.xsd
            "
            xmlns:util="http://www.springframework.org/schema/util"
            xmlns:p="http://www.springframework.org/schema/p"
            xmlns:context="http://www.springframework.org/schema/context"    
            >
        <context:component-scan base-package="test.SpringMVC.integrate">
            <context:exclude-filter type="annotation" 
                expression="org.springframework.stereotype.Controller"/>
            <context:exclude-filter type="annotation" 
                expression="org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.ControllerAdvice"/>        
        </context:component-scan>
        
    </beans>

      在Web.xml中添加配置

      <!-- configure the springIOC -->
      <listener>
          <listener-class>org.springframework.web.context.ContextLoaderListener</listener-class>
      </listener>
      <context-param>  
        <param-name>contextConfigLocation</param-name>  
        <param-value>classpath:applicationContext.xml</param-value>
      </context-param>

      6.在SpringMVC中進行一些配置,防止SpringMVC和SpringIOC對同一個對象的管理重合

    <!-- scan the package and the sub package -->
        <context:component-scan base-package="test.SpringMVC.integrate">
            <context:include-filter type="annotation" 
                expression="org.springframework.stereotype.Controller"/>
            <context:include-filter type="annotation" 
                expression="org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.ControllerAdvice"/>
        </context:component-scan>

     十八、SpringMVC詳細運行流程圖

     十九、SpringMVC與struts2的區別

      1、springmvc基于方法開發的,struts2基于類開發的。springmvc將url和controller里的方法映射。映射成功后springmvc生成一個Handler對象,對象中只包括了一個method。方法執行結束,形參數據銷毀。springmvc的controller開發類似web service開發。

      2、springmvc可以進行單例開發,并且建議使用單例開發,struts2通過類的成員變量接收參數,無法使用單例,只能使用多例。

      3、經過實際測試,struts2速度慢,在于使用struts標簽,如果使用struts建議使用jstl。

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