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    首页»Java WEB»史上最全最强SpringMVC详细示例实战教程

    史上最全最强SpringMVC详细示例实战教程

    来源:Sunnier 发布时间:2015-06-22 阅读次数:

     一、SpringMVC基础入门,创建一个HelloWorld程序

      1.首先,导入SpringMVC需要的jar包。

      2.添加Web.xml配置文件中关于SpringMVC的配置

      <!--configure the setting of springmvcDispatcherServlet and configure the mapping-->
      <servlet>
          <servlet-name>springmvc</servlet-name>
          <servlet-class>org.springframework.web.servlet.DispatcherServlet</servlet-class>
          <init-param>
                <param-name>contextConfigLocation</param-name>
                <param-value>classpath:springmvc-servlet.xml</param-value>
            </init-param>
            <!-- <load-on-startup>1</load-on-startup> -->
      </servlet>
    
      <servlet-mapping>
          <servlet-name>springmvc</servlet-name>
          <url-pattern>/</url-pattern>
      </servlet-mapping>

      3.在src下添加springmvc-servlet.xml配置文件

    <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
    <beans xmlns="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"
        xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
        xmlns:context="http://www.springframework.org/schema/context"
        xmlns:mvc="http://www.springframework.org/schema/mvc"
        xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans.xsd
            http://www.springframework.org/schema/context http://www.springframework.org/schema/context/spring-context-4.1.xsd
            http://www.springframework.org/schema/mvc http://www.springframework.org/schema/mvc/spring-mvc-4.1.xsd">                    
    
        <!-- scan the package and the sub package -->
        <context:component-scan base-package="test.SpringMVC"/>
    
        <!-- don't handle the static resource -->
        <mvc:default-servlet-handler />
    
        <!-- if you use annotation you must configure following setting -->
        <mvc:annotation-driven />
        
        <!-- configure the InternalResourceViewResolver -->
        <bean class="org.springframework.web.servlet.view.InternalResourceViewResolver" 
                id="internalResourceViewResolver">
            <!-- 前缀 -->
            <property name="prefix" value="/WEB-INF/jsp/" />
            <!-- 后缀 -->
            <property name="suffix" value=".jsp" />
        </bean>
    </beans>

      4.在WEB-INF文件夹下创建名为jsp的文件夹,用?#21019;?#25918;jsp视图。创建一个hello.jsp,在body中添加“Hello World”。

      5.建立包及Controller,如下所示

      6.编写Controller代码

    @Controller
    @RequestMapping("/mvc")
    public class mvcController {
    
        @RequestMapping("/hello")
        public String hello(){        
            return "hello";
        }
    }

      7.启动服务器,键入 http://localhost:8080/项目名/mvc/hello

     二、配置解析

      1.Dispatcherservlet

      DispatcherServlet是前置控制器,配置在web.xml文件中的。拦截匹配的请求,Servlet拦截匹配规则要自已定义,把拦截下来的请求,依据相应的规则分发到目标Controller?#21019;?#29702;,是配置spring MVC的第一步。

      2.InternalResourceViewResolver

      视图名称解析器

      3.以上出现的注解

      @Controller 负责注册一个bean 到spring 上下文中

      @RequestMapping 注解为控制器指定可以处理哪些 URL 请求

     三、SpringMVC常用注解

      @Controller

      负责注册一个bean 到spring 上下文中

      @RequestMapping

      注解为控制器指定可以处理哪些 URL 请求

      @RequestBody

      该注解用于读取Request请求的body部分数据,使用系统默认配置的HttpMessageConverter进行解析,然后把相应的数据绑定到要返回的对象上 ,再把HttpMessageConverter返回的对象数据绑定到 controller中方法的参数上

      @ResponseBody

      该注解用于将Controller的方法返回的对象,通过?#23454;?#30340;HttpMessageConverter转换为指定格式后,写入到Response对象的body数据区

      @ModelAttribute    

      在方法定义上使用 @ModelAttribute 注解:Spring MVC 在调用目标处理方法前,会先逐个调用在方法级上标注了@ModelAttribute 的方法

      在方法的入参前使用 @ModelAttribute 注解:可以从隐含对象中获取隐含的模型数据中获取对象,再将请求参数 –绑定到对象中,再传入入参将方法入参对象添加到模型中 

      @RequestParam 

      在处理方法入参处使用 @RequestParam 可以把请求参 数传递给请求方法

      @PathVariable

      绑定 URL 占位符到入参

      @ExceptionHandler

      注解到方法上,出现异常时会执行该方法

      @ControllerAdvice

      使一个Contoller成为全局的异常处理类,类中用@ExceptionHandler方法注解的方法可以处理所有Controller发生的异常

     四、自动匹配参数

      //match automatically
      @RequestMapping("/person")
      public String toPerson(String name,double age){
          System.out.println(name+" "+age);
          return "hello";
      }

     五、自动装箱

      1.编写一个Person实体类

    package test.SpringMVC.model;
    
    public class Person {
        public String getName() {
            return name;
        }
        public void setName(String name) {
            this.name = name;
        }
        public int getAge() {
            return age;
        }
        public void setAge(int age) {
            this.age = age;
        }
        private String name;
        private int age;
        
    }

      2.在Controller里编写方法

      //boxing automatically
      @RequestMapping("/person1")
      public String toPerson(Person p){
          System.out.println(p.getName()+" "+p.getAge());
          return "hello";
      }

     六、使用InitBinder?#21019;?#29702;Date类型的参数

     //the parameter was converted in initBinder
     @RequestMapping("/date")
     public String date(Date date){
         System.out.println(date);
         return "hello";
     }
        
     //At the time of initialization,convert the type "String" to type "date"
     @InitBinder
     public void initBinder(ServletRequestDataBinder binder){
         binder.registerCustomEditor(Date.class, new CustomDateEditor(new SimpleDateFormat("yyyy-MM-dd"),
                 true));
     }

     七、向前台传递参数

     //pass the parameters to front-end
     @RequestMapping("/show")
     public String showPerson(Map<String,Object> map){
         Person p =new Person();
         map.put("p", p);
         p.setAge(20);
         p.setName("jayjay");
         return "show";
     }

      前台可在Request域中取到"p"

     八、使用Ajax调用

     //pass the parameters to front-end using ajax
     @RequestMapping("/getPerson")
     public void getPerson(String name,PrintWriter pw){
         pw.write("hello,"+name);        
     }
     @RequestMapping("/name")
     public String sayHello(){
         return "name";
     }

      前台用下面的Jquery代码调用

     $(function(){
         $("#btn").click(function(){
            $.post("mvc/getPerson",{name:$("#name").val()},function(data){
                 alert(data);
             });
         });
     });

     九、在Controller中使用redirect方式处理请求

      //redirect 
      @RequestMapping("/redirect")
      public String redirect(){
          return "redirect:hello";
      }

     十、文件上传

      1.需要导入两个jar包

      2.在SpringMVC配置文件中加入

      <!-- upload settings -->
      <bean id="multipartResolver"  class="org.springframework.web.multipart.commons.CommonsMultipartResolver">
          <property name="maxUploadSize" value="102400000"></property>
      </bean>

      3.方法代码

        @RequestMapping(value="/upload",method=RequestMethod.POST)
        public String upload(HttpServletRequest req) throws Exception{
            MultipartHttpServletRequest mreq = (MultipartHttpServletRequest)req;
            MultipartFile file = mreq.getFile("file");
            String fileName = file.getOriginalFilename();
            SimpleDateFormat sdf = new SimpleDateFormat("yyyyMMddHHmmss");        
            FileOutputStream fos = new FileOutputStream(req.getSession().getServletContext().getRealPath("/")+
                    "upload/"+sdf.format(new Date())+fileName.substring(fileName.lastIndexOf('.')));
            fos.write(file.getBytes());
            fos.flush();
            fos.close();
            
            return "hello";
        }

      4.前台form表单

       <form action="mvc/upload" method="post" enctype="multipart/form-data">
           <input type="file" name="file"><br>
           <input type="submit" value="submit">
       </form>

     十一、使用@RequestParam注解指定参数的name

    @Controller
    @RequestMapping("/test")
    public class mvcController1 {
        @RequestMapping(value="/param")
        public String testRequestParam(@RequestParam(value="id") Integer id,
                @RequestParam(value="name")String name){
            System.out.println(id+" "+name);
            return "/hello";
        }    
    }

     十二、RESTFul风格的SringMVC

      1.RestController

    @Controller
    @RequestMapping("/rest")
    public class RestController {
        @RequestMapping(value="/user/{id}",method=RequestMethod.GET)
        public String get(@PathVariable("id") Integer id){
            System.out.println("get"+id);
            return "/hello";
        }
        
        @RequestMapping(value="/user/{id}",method=RequestMethod.POST)
        public String post(@PathVariable("id") Integer id){
            System.out.println("post"+id);
            return "/hello";
        }
        
        @RequestMapping(value="/user/{id}",method=RequestMethod.PUT)
        public String put(@PathVariable("id") Integer id){
            System.out.println("put"+id);
            return "/hello";
        }
        
        @RequestMapping(value="/user/{id}",method=RequestMethod.DELETE)
        public String delete(@PathVariable("id") Integer id){
            System.out.println("delete"+id);
            return "/hello";
        }
        
    }

      2.form表单发送put和delete请求

      在web.xml中配置

      <!-- configure the HiddenHttpMethodFilter,convert the post method to put or delete -->
      <filter>
          <filter-name>HiddenHttpMethodFilter</filter-name>
          <filter-class>org.springframework.web.filter.HiddenHttpMethodFilter</filter-class>
      </filter>
      <filter-mapping>
          <filter-name>HiddenHttpMethodFilter</filter-name>
          <url-pattern>/*</url-pattern>
      </filter-mapping>

      在前台可以用以下代码产生请求

        <form action="rest/user/1" method="post">
            <input type="hidden" name="_method" value="PUT">
            <input type="submit" value="put">
        </form>
        
        <form action="rest/user/1" method="post">
            <input type="submit" value="post">
        </form>
        
        <form action="rest/user/1" method="get">
            <input type="submit" value="get">
        </form>
        
        <form action="rest/user/1" method="post">
            <input type="hidden" name="_method" value="DELETE">
            <input type="submit" value="delete">
        </form>

     十三、返回json格式的字符串

      1.导入以下jar包

      2.方法代码

    @Controller
    @RequestMapping("/json")
    public class jsonController {
        
        @ResponseBody
        @RequestMapping("/user")
        public  User get(){
            User u = new User();
            u.setId(1);
            u.setName("jayjay");
            u.setBirth(new Date());
            return u;
        }
    }

     十四、异常的处理

      1.处理局部异常(Controller内)

     @ExceptionHandler
     public ModelAndView exceptionHandler(Exception ex){
         ModelAndView mv = new ModelAndView("error");
         mv.addObject("exception", ex);
         System.out.println("in testExceptionHandler");
         return mv;
     }
        
     @RequestMapping("/error")
     public String error(){
         int i = 5/0;
         return "hello";
     }

      2.处理全局异常(所有Controller)

    @ControllerAdvice
    public class testControllerAdvice {
        @ExceptionHandler
        public ModelAndView exceptionHandler(Exception ex){
            ModelAndView mv = new ModelAndView("error");
            mv.addObject("exception", ex);
            System.out.println("in testControllerAdvice");
            return mv;
        }
    }

      3.另一种处理全局异常的方法

      在SpringMVC配置文件中配置

      <!-- configure SimpleMappingExceptionResolver -->
      <bean class="org.springframework.web.servlet.handler.SimpleMappingExceptionResolver">
          <property name="exceptionMappings">
              <props>
                  <prop key="java.lang.ArithmeticException">error</prop>
              </props>
          </property>
      </bean>

      error是出错页面

     十五、设置一个自定义拦截器

      1.创建一个MyInterceptor类,并实现HandlerInterceptor接口

    public class MyInterceptor implements HandlerInterceptor {
    
        @Override
        public void afterCompletion(HttpServletRequest arg0,
                HttpServletResponse arg1, Object arg2, Exception arg3)
                throws Exception {
            System.out.println("afterCompletion");
        }
    
        @Override
        public void postHandle(HttpServletRequest arg0, HttpServletResponse arg1,
                Object arg2, ModelAndView arg3) throws Exception {
            System.out.println("postHandle");
        }
    
        @Override
        public boolean preHandle(HttpServletRequest arg0, HttpServletResponse arg1,
                Object arg2) throws Exception {
            System.out.println("preHandle");
            return true;
        }
    
    }

      2.在SpringMVC的配置文件中配置

        <!-- interceptor setting -->
        <mvc:interceptors>
            <mvc:interceptor>
                <mvc:mapping path="/mvc/**"/>
                <bean class="test.SpringMVC.Interceptor.MyInterceptor"></bean>
            </mvc:interceptor>        
        </mvc:interceptors>

      3.拦截器执行顺序

     十六、表单的验证(使用Hibernate-validate)及国际化

      1.导入Hibernate-validate需要的jar包

    (未选中不用导入)

      2.编写实体类User并加上验证注解

    public class User {
        public int getId() {
            return id;
        }
        public void setId(int id) {
            this.id = id;
        }
        public String getName() {
            return name;
        }
        public void setName(String name) {
            this.name = name;
        }
        public Date getBirth() {
            return birth;
        }
        public void setBirth(Date birth) {
            this.birth = birth;
        }
        @Override
        public String toString() {
            return "User [id=" + id + ", name=" + name + ", birth=" + birth + "]";
        }    
        private int id;
        @NotEmpty
        private String name;
    
        @Past
        @DateTimeFormat(pattern="yyyy-MM-dd")
        private Date birth;
    }

      ps:@Past表示时间必须是一个过去值

      3.在jsp中使用SpringMVC的form表单

        <form:form action="form/add" method="post" modelAttribute="user">
            id:<form:input path="id"/><form:errors path="id"/><br>
            name:<form:input path="name"/><form:errors path="name"/><br>
            birth:<form:input path="birth"/><form:errors path="birth"/>
            <input type="submit" value="submit">
        </form:form> 

      ps:path对应name

      4.Controller?#20889;?#30721;

    @Controller
    @RequestMapping("/form")
    public class formController {
        @RequestMapping(value="/add",method=RequestMethod.POST)    
        public String add(@Valid User u,BindingResult br){
            if(br.getErrorCount()>0){            
                return "addUser";
            }
            return "showUser";
        }
        
        @RequestMapping(value="/add",method=RequestMethod.GET)
        public String add(Map<String,Object> map){
            map.put("user",new User());
            return "addUser";
        }
    }

      ps:

      1.因为jsp中使用了modelAttribute属性,所以必须在request域中有一个"user".

      [email protected] 表示按照在实体上标记的注解验证参数

      3.返回到原页面错误信息回回显,表单也会回显

      5.错误信息自定义

      在src目录下添加locale.properties

    NotEmpty.user.name=name can't not be empty
    Past.user.birth=birth should be a past value
    DateTimeFormat.user.birth=the format of input is wrong
    typeMismatch.user.birth=the format of input is wrong
    typeMismatch.user.id=the format of input is wrong

      在SpringMVC配置文件中配置

        <!-- configure the locale resource -->
        <bean id="messageSource" class="org.springframework.context.support.ResourceBundleMessageSource">
            <property name="basename" value="locale"></property>
        </bean>

      6.国际化显示

      在src下添加locale_zh_CN.properties

    username=账号
    password=密码

      locale.properties中添加

    username=user name
    password=password

      创建一个locale.jsp

      <body>
        <fmt:message key="username"></fmt:message>
        <fmt:message key="password"></fmt:message>
      </body>

      在SpringMVC中配置

        <!-- make the jsp page can be visited -->
        <mvc:view-controller path="/locale" view-name="locale"/>

      让locale.jsp在WEB-INF下也能直接访问

      最后,访问locale.jsp,切换浏览器语言,能看到账号和密码的语言也切换了

     十七、压轴大戏--整合SpringIOC和SpringMVC

      1.创建一个test.SpringMVC.integrate的包用来演示整合,并创建各类

      2.User实体类

    public class User {
        public int getId() {
            return id;
        }
        public void setId(int id) {
            this.id = id;
        }
        public String getName() {
            return name;
        }
        public void setName(String name) {
            this.name = name;
        }
        public Date getBirth() {
            return birth;
        }
        public void setBirth(Date birth) {
            this.birth = birth;
        }
        @Override
        public String toString() {
            return "User [id=" + id + ", name=" + name + ", birth=" + birth + "]";
        }    
        private int id;
        @NotEmpty
        private String name;
    
        @Past
        @DateTimeFormat(pattern="yyyy-MM-dd")
        private Date birth;
    }

      3.UserService类

    @Component
    public class UserService {
        public UserService(){
            System.out.println("UserService Constructor...\n\n\n\n\n\n");
        }
        
        public void save(){
            System.out.println("save");
        }
    }

      4.UserController

    @Controller
    @RequestMapping("/integrate")
    public class UserController {
        @Autowired
        private UserService userService;
        
        @RequestMapping("/user")
        public String saveUser(@RequestBody @ModelAttribute User u){
            System.out.println(u);
            userService.save();
            return "hello";
        }
    }

      5.Spring配置文件

      在src目录下创建SpringIOC的配置文件applicationContext.xml

    <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
    <beans xmlns="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"
        xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
        xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans  
            http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans.xsd 
            http://www.springframework.org/schema/util 
            http://www.springframework.org/schema/util/spring-util-4.0.xsd
            http://www.springframework.org/schema/context
            http://www.springframework.org/schema/context/spring-context.xsd
            "
            xmlns:util="http://www.springframework.org/schema/util"
            xmlns:p="http://www.springframework.org/schema/p"
            xmlns:context="http://www.springframework.org/schema/context"    
            >
        <context:component-scan base-package="test.SpringMVC.integrate">
            <context:exclude-filter type="annotation" 
                expression="org.springframework.stereotype.Controller"/>
            <context:exclude-filter type="annotation" 
                expression="org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.ControllerAdvice"/>        
        </context:component-scan>
        
    </beans>

      在Web.xml中添加配置

      <!-- configure the springIOC -->
      <listener>
          <listener-class>org.springframework.web.context.ContextLoaderListener</listener-class>
      </listener>
      <context-param>  
        <param-name>contextConfigLocation</param-name>  
        <param-value>classpath:applicationContext.xml</param-value>
      </context-param>

      6.在SpringMVC中进行一些配置,防止SpringMVC和SpringIOC对同一个对象的管理重合

    <!-- scan the package and the sub package -->
        <context:component-scan base-package="test.SpringMVC.integrate">
            <context:include-filter type="annotation" 
                expression="org.springframework.stereotype.Controller"/>
            <context:include-filter type="annotation" 
                expression="org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.ControllerAdvice"/>
        </context:component-scan>

     十八、SpringMVC详细运行流程图

     十九、SpringMVC与struts2的区别

      1、springmvc基于方法开发?#27169;瑂truts2基于类开发的。springmvc将url和controller里的方法?#25104;洹S成?#25104;功后springmvc生成一个Handler对象,对象中只包括了一个method。方法执行结束,形参数据销毁。springmvc的controller开发类似web service开发。

      2、springmvc可以进行单例开发,并且建议使用单例开发,struts2通过类的成员变量接收参数,无法使用单例,只能使用多例。

      3、经过实际测试,struts2速度慢,在于使用struts标签,如果使用struts建议使用jstl。

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